HKPC Independent Auditor's Report and Financial Statements 2022-2023

18 生產力局 獨立核數師報告及財務報告 HKPC INDEPENDENT AUDITOR’S REPORT AND FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 2022-23 4. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (continued) (e) Impairment of assets (i) Impairment of investment in equity securities Investments in equity securities that are stated at cost or amortised cost are reviewed at the end of each reporting period to determine whether there is objective evidence of impairment, which includes observable data that comes to the attention of the Group about one or more of the following loss events: – Significant financial difficulty of the investee; – A breach of contract, such as a default or delinquency in interest or principal payments by the investee; – It becoming probable that the investee will enter bankruptcy or other financial reorganisation; – Significant changes in the technological, market, economic or legal environment that have an adverse effect on the investee; and – A significant or prolonged decline in the fair value of an investment in the investee below its cost. For investments in subsidiaries and an associate (including those recognised using the equity method), the impairment loss is measured by comparing the recoverable amount of the investment with its carrying amount. The impairment loss is reversed if there has been a favourable change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount in accordance with note 4(e)(iii). (ii) Impairment of accounts receivable and contract assets The Group assesses an allowance for expected credit losses (“ECL”) for all debt instruments stated at cost or amortised cost. ECL are based on the difference between the contractual cash flows due in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the Group expects to receive, discounted at an approximation of the original effective interest rate. The expected cash flows will include cash flows from the sale of collateral held or other credit enhancements that are integral to the contractual terms. 4. 重要會計政策概要(續) (e) 資產減值 (i) 權益證券投資的減值 本集團在每報告期末日審閱按成本或攤銷成本入賬的 權益證券投資,以確定是否有客觀的減值證據。客觀 的減值證據包括集團注意到有關以下一宗或多宗損失 事件的可觀察資訊: – 投資者出現重大的財務困難; – 違反合約,如投資者拖欠或未履行利息或本金付 款; – 投資者很可能面臨破產或其他財務重組; – 技術、市場、經濟或法律環境出現對投資者構成 負面影響的重大變動;以及 – 投資者投資的公允價值顯著或長期跌至低於成 本。 對於附屬公司及聯營公司的投資(包括按權益法確認的 投資),減值虧損按該投資的可收回數額與其賬面金額 作比較而計量。如果按附註4(e)(iii) 用以釐定可收回數 額的估計數額出現了正面的變化,有關的減值虧損便 會轉回。 (ii) 應收賬款及合約資產的減值 本集團確認對所有按成本或攤銷成本入賬的債務工具 作預期信貸虧損的撥備。預期信貸虧損乃基於根據合 約到期的合約現金流量與本集團預期收取的所有現金 流量之間的差額而釐定,並以原實際利率的近似值貼 現。預期現金流量將包括出售所持抵押的現金流量或 組成合約條款的其他信貸提升措施。